Sprites Reference Material

NOTE:  This is the material that I used to write the paper on this web site.

Boeck, W.L. O.H. Vaughn, Jr.,R. Blakeslee, B. Vonnegut, M. Brook, and J. McKune, 1995, "Observations of Lightning in the Stratosphere", Journal of Geophysical Research,Vol 100, Number D1, pp. 1465-1475 , 20 January 1995.

Corliss, W. R., 1982 , "Lightning, Auroras, Nocturnal Lights, and Related Phenomena: a catalogue of Geophysical Anomalies", The Sourcebook Project, P.O.Box 107, Glen Arm, MD 21057

Dowden, R.L., Brundell, J.B., Lyons, W.A., and Nelson, T., 1996, "Detection and Location of Red Sprites by VLF Scattering of Subionospheric Transmissions", Physics Dept., Univ. of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand, 16 February 1996

Dowden, R.L., Brundell, J.B., Lyons, W.A., and Nelson, T., 1995, "The Structure of Red Sprites and Elves Determined by VLF Scattering", Physics Dept., Univ. of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand, 18 December 1995

Franz, R.C., R.J. Nemzek, and J.R. Winckler, 1990, "Television Image of a Large Upward Electrical Discharge Above a Thunderstorm System", Science, Vol. 249, pp. 48-51, 6 July 1990

Frost, P.A., 1990, "Discrimination and classification with Xybion multispectral video systems", presented at 19th International Congress on High-Speed Photography & Photonics, Cambridge,UK, Sept, 18, 1990. to the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. Xybion Electronic Systems Corporation , Cedar Knolls, New Jersey, 07927, USA.

Gales, D.M., 1982, "Another Account",Weatherwise, p. 72, April 1992.

Gurevich, A.V., Milikh, G.M., and Roussel-Dupre, R.A., 1992, "Runaway electron mechanism of air breakdown and preconditioning during a thunderstorm", Physics Letters A, Vol. 165, Number 5,6, pp. 463-68, 1 June 1992

Hampton, D. L. , M. J. Heavner, E. M. Wescott, and D. D. Sentman, 1996, "Optical Spectral Characteristics of Sprites", WWW address: http://elf.gi.alaska.edu/papers/specpaper.html. Geophys. Res. Letts, 23, 82-92, 1996

Harrison, G.R., 1969, "Massachusetts Institute of Technology Wavelength Tables", Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, The M.I.T Press, Cambridge, Mass. pages xi and 16.

Heavner, M.J., 1996, "Red Sprites and Blue Jets", WWW address http://elf.gi.alaska.edu/ , Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, 1996

Hoffman, W.C., 1960, "The Current-Jet Hypothesis of Whistler Generation", Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 65, Number 7, pp.2047-54., July 1960.

Horsack, J., 1996,"A Different 'Campaign 96': Catching Earth's Gamma Rays in the Act", WWW page: http://wwwssl.msfc.nasa.gov/newhome/headlines/ast31jul96_1.htm NASA Marshall Space Flight Center / Astronomy, Huntsville, Alabama.

Iribarne, J.V., and H.R. Cho, 1980, "Atmospheric Physics", D. Reidel Publishing Co. 160 Old Derby St., Hingham MA 02043, USA, pp.2-64.

Jeong, L.S., 1996, "Proceedings of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research and Phillips Laboratory Workshop on Sprites and Blue Jets", Government Document, PL-TR-96-2038, Special Reports, No. 277, Phillips Laboratory, Directorate of Geophysics, Air Force Material Command, Hanscom AFB, MA 01731-3010, 30 January 1996.

Kerr, R.A., 1995, "Lofty Flashes come down to earth", Science, Vol 270, p. 235,13 Oct 1995.

Langreth, R. 1995,"Unidentified Flashing Objects", Popular Science, January 1995

Lyons, W.A. ,1994, "PICTURE OF THE MONTH: Low-Light Video Observations of frequent luminous structures in the stratosphere above thunderstorms", Monthly Weather Review, Vol. 122 , 1940-1946, 1994.

Lyons, W.A. ,1994, "Characteristics of luminous structures in the stratosphere above thunderstorms as imaged by low-light video", Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 21 , pp. 875-878, 15 May 1994.

Macenzie, T, and Toynbee, H, 1886, "Meteorological Phenomenon", Nature, 33, January 14, 1886, p. 246.

Muller, R.A., 1995, "Red Sprites triggered by meteors?", Dept. of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, 1995.

Pendick, D. 1996, "Fires in the Sky", Earth, Jun 1996

Roth, J., 1996, "Gamma-Ray Thunderbolts and Upside Down Lightning", Sky & Telescope, Vol. 91, No.4, April 1996, pp.12-13.

Roussel-Dupre, R.A., Gurevich, A.V., Tunnel, T., and Milikh, G.M., 1994, "Kinetic Theory of runaway air breakdown ", Physical Review E, Vol. 49, Number 3, pp. 2257-2271, March 1994

Sentman, D.D., E.M. Wescott, D.L. Osborne, D.L. Hampton M.J. Heavner, 1995, Web Address : http://elf.gi.alaska.edu/papers/redsprites.html "Preliminary results from the Sprites94 Aircraft Campaign :1. Red Sprites", Geophys. Res. Letts.,Vol. 22, Number 10, 1205-1208, 1995.

Vaughn, O.H. Jr., B. Vonnegut , 1982, "Lightning to the Ionosphere?", Weatherwise, pp. 70-72 ,April 1992.

Vaughn, O.H. Jr., B. Vonnegut , 1989, "Recent Observations of Lightning Discharges from the top of a Thundercloud Into the Clear Air Above", Jour. Geophys. Res., pp. 13179-13182, April 1992.

Vaughn, O.H. Jr., 1992, "PICTURE OF THE MONTH: A Cloud-to-Space Lightning as recorded by the Space Shuttle Payload-Bay TV Camera", Monthly Weather Review, Vol. 120 , 1459-1461, 1992.

Vaughn, O.H. Jr.,R. Blakeslee, W.L. Boeck, B. Vonnegut, M. Brook, and J. McKune, Jr., 1992, "A Cloud-to-Space Lightning as Recorded by the Space Shuttle Payload - Bay TV Cameras", Monthly Weather Review, pp. 1459-1461 , July 1992.

Vaughn, O.H. Jr., 1995, "Space Shuttle Observations of Lightning",   WWW address: http://wwwghcc.msfc.nasa.gov/skeets.html

Vonnegut, B. , 1980, "Cloud-to-Stratosphere lightning", Weather, Vol. 35, Number 2, pp. 59-60, February 1980.

Wallace, J.M. and P.V. Hobbs, 1977, "Atmospheric Science: An Introductory Survey", Academic Press, San Diego Ca, 92101, pp. 202-9.

Wescott, E.M., D.D. Sentman, D.L. Osborne, D.L. Hampton, M.J. Heavner, "Preliminary results from the Sprites94 Aircraft Campaign: 2. Blue Jets", Geophys. Res. Letts. 22, 1209-1213, 1995.

Wilson, C.T.R., 1925, "The Electric Field of a Thundercloud and some of its effects", The Proceedings of the Physical Society of London, Vol. 37, part 2, February 15, 1925, London.

Wilson, C.T.R., 1956, "A Theory of Thundercloud Electricty", The Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Vol. 236, September 11, 1956, Royal Society, Burlington House, Piccadily, London W.I

Zimmer, C. 1995, "Carrots Over Nebraska", Discover , Vol. 16, Number 1, January, 1995

Questions? Contact: Paul McCrone - PaulJMC@aol.com

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